Race Gap in Law Enforcement

The Race Gap in America’s Police Departments

By JEREMY ASHKENAS and HAEYOUN PARK SEPT. 4, 2014

In hundreds of police departments across the country, the percentage of whites on the force is more than 30 percentage points higher than in the communities they serve, according to an analysis of a government survey of police departments. Minorities make up a quarter of police forces, according to the 2007 survey, the most recent comprehensive data available. Experts say that diversity in the police force increases a department’s credibility with its community. “Even if police officers of whatever race enforce the law in relatively the same way, there is a huge image problem with a department that is so out of sync with the racial composition of the local population,” said Ronald Weitzer, a sociologist at George Washington University. Listed below are local police departments from 16 metropolitan areas, sorted so that departments with the largest percentage-point differences of white officers to white residents are at the top.

Metro areas: St. Louis Cleveland New York Los Angeles Chicago

St. Louis

Disparities in the racial makeup of police departments and their communities are most pronounced in smaller Midwestern cities, like Ferguson, where minorities make up at least two-thirds of the population. Ferguson went from majority white to majority black in the last two decades, but the police department is still predominantly white. The imbalance is less pronounced in other parts of St. Louis County, where the population is mostly white.

St. Louis

Circles are scaled according to the size of the police department.

Department WHITEBLACKHISP.ASIANOTHER
Dellwood, Mo.Pop. 5,02518 police officers ResidentsPolice Police dept.+77 pct.
pts.more white
than residents
Riverview, Mo.Pop. 2,85611 police officers ResidentsPolice +64 pct.
pts.more white
Ferguson, Mo.Pop. 21,20354 police officers ResidentsPolice +55 pct.
pts.more white
Hazelwood, Mo.Pop. 25,70367 police officers ResidentsPolice +36 pct.
pts.more white
Moline Acres, Mo.Pop. 2,44212 police officers ResidentsPolice +35 pct.
pts.more white
Belleville, Ill.Pop. 44,47883 police officers ResidentsPolice +26 pct.
pts.more white
Pagedale, Mo.Pop. 3,30416 police officers ResidentsPolice +22 pct.
pts.more white
St. Louis, Mo.Pop. 319,2941,348 police officers ResidentsPolice +21 pct.
pts.more white
Florissant, Mo.Pop. 52,15885 police officers ResidentsPolice +20 pct.
pts.more white
St. Charles, Mo.Pop. 65,794110 police officers ResidentsPolice +12 pct.
pts.more white
Shrewsbury, Mo.Pop. 6,25418 police officers ResidentsPolice +11 pct.
pts.more white
Frontenac, Mo.Pop. 3,48221 police officers ResidentsPolice +11 pct.
pts.more white
Ballwin, Mo.Pop. 30,40452 police officers ResidentsPolice +10 pct.
pts.more white
Chesterfield, Mo.Pop. 47,48485 police officers ResidentsPolice +10 pct.
pts.more white
O’Fallon, Mo.Pop. 79,329102 police officers ResidentsPolice +9 pct.
pts.more white
Troy, Ill.Pop. 9,88818 police officers ResidentsPolice +8 pct.
pts.more white
East St. Louis, Ill.Pop. 27,00661 police officers ResidentsPolice +7 pct.
pts.more white
Ellisville, Mo.Pop. 9,13321 police officers ResidentsPolice +5 pct.
pts.more white
Arnold, Mo.Pop. 20,80850 police officers ResidentsPolice +5 pct.
pts.more white
Glendale, Mo.Pop. 5,92512 police officers ResidentsPolice +4 pct.
pts.more white
Richmond Heights, Mo.Pop. 8,60340 police officers ResidentsPolice +2 pct.
pts.more white

 

Cleveland

Like Ferguson, Mo., Maple Heights went from being mostly white to nearly two-thirds black in the last few decades. But its police force remains unchanged, despite a 1977 affirmative action deal in which the city agreed to hire more minorities. Most of the other police departments in the Cleveland metro area are more closely matched to the populations they serve.

Cleveland

Circles are scaled according to the size of the police department.

Department WHITEBLACKHISP.ASIANOTHER
Maple Heights, OhioPop. 23,13839 police officers ResidentsPolice Police dept.+70 pct.
pts.more white
than residents
Garfield Heights, OhioPop. 28,84962 police officers ResidentsPolice +39 pct.
pts.more white
University Heights, OhioPop. 13,53930 police officers ResidentsPolice +27 pct.
pts.more white
Berea, OhioPop. 19,09331 police officers ResidentsPolice +13 pct.
pts.more white
Parma, OhioPop. 81,60188 police officers ResidentsPolice +8 pct.
pts.more white
Lyndhurst, OhioPop. 14,00131 police officers ResidentsPolice +7 pct.
pts.more white
Strongsville, OhioPop. 44,75077 police officers ResidentsPolice +7 pct.
pts.more white
Mayfield Village, OhioPop. 3,46016 police officers ResidentsPolice +5 pct.
pts.more white
Madison, OhioPop. 18,88915 police officers ResidentsPolice +4 pct.
pts.more white
Richfield, OhioPop. 3,64817 police officers ResidentsPolice +4 pct.
pts.more white
Chagrin Falls, OhioPop. 4,11311 police officers ResidentsPolice +3 pct.
pts.more white
Mentor, OhioPop. 47,15982 police officers ResidentsPolice +2 pct.
pts.more white
Westlake, OhioPop. 32,72952 police officers ResidentsPolice -1 pct.
pts.less white

 

New York

New York City’s police department is among a number of large departments where court-ordered mandates have led to more racial diversity. A federal judge ruled in 1978 that the city could not use its Civil Service exam to select new police recruits, leading to measures that increased the hiring of black and Hispanic officers. In some New Jersey towns, like Plainsboro, Dover and Edison, Hispanics and Asians are significantly underrepresented.

New York

Circles are scaled according to the size of the police department.

Department WHITEBLACKHISP.ASIANOTHER
Plainsboro, N.J.Pop. 22,99933 police officers ResidentsPolice Police dept.+56 pct.
pts.more white
than residents
Edison, N.J.Pop. 99,967204 police officers ResidentsPolice +56 pct.
pts.more white
North Bergen, N.J.Pop. 60,773120 police officers ResidentsPolice +56 pct.
pts.more white
Dover, N.J.Pop. 18,15736 police officers ResidentsPolice +55 pct.
pts.more white
Guttenberg, N.J.Pop. 11,17623 police officers ResidentsPolice +55 pct.
pts.more white
Belleville, N.J.Pop. 35,926104 police officers ResidentsPolice +55 pct.
pts.more white
Harrison, N.J.Pop. 13,62051 police officers ResidentsPolice +51 pct.
pts.more white
Ridgefield Park, N.J.Pop. 12,72930 police officers ResidentsPolice +50 pct.
pts.more white
North Brunswick, N.J.Pop. 40,74285 police officers ResidentsPolice +50 pct.
pts.more white
Elizabeth, N.J.Pop. 124,969362 police officers ResidentsPolice +50 pct.
pts.more white
Kearny, N.J.Pop. 40,684113 police officers ResidentsPolice +50 pct.
pts.more white
South Bound Brook, N.J.Pop. 4,56313 police officers ResidentsPolice +46 pct.
pts.more white
South Brunswick, N.J.Pop. 43,41782 police officers ResidentsPolice +46 pct.
pts.more white
Mount Vernon, N.Y.Pop. 67,292207 police officers ResidentsPolice +45 pct.
pts.more white
Union, N.J.Pop. 56,642139 police officers ResidentsPolice +45 pct.
pts.more white
Yonkers, N.Y.Pop. 195,976647 police officers ResidentsPolice +45 pct.
pts.more white
Linden, N.J.Pop. 40,499130 police officers ResidentsPolice +45 pct.
pts.more white
Perth Amboy, N.J.Pop. 50,814123 police officers ResidentsPolice +44 pct.
pts.more white
New Brunswick, N.J.Pop. 55,181142 police officers ResidentsPolice +43 pct.
pts.more white
Hempstead Village, N.Y.Pop. 53,891106 police officers ResidentsPolice +41 pct.
pts.more white
Fort Lee, N.J.Pop. 35,345109 police officers ResidentsPolice +40 pct.
pts.more white
Roselle Park, N.J.Pop. 13,29734 police officers ResidentsPolice +40 pct.
pts.more white
Bloomfield, N.J.Pop. 47,315135 police officers ResidentsPolice +38 pct.
pts.more white
Flemington, N.J.Pop. 4,58114 police officers ResidentsPolice +38 pct.
pts.more white
East Rutherford, N.J.Pop. 8,91332 police officers ResidentsPolice +37 pct.
pts.more white
Paterson, N.J.Pop. 146,199483 police officers ResidentsPolice +37 pct.
pts.more white
Parsippany-Troy Hills, N.J.Pop. 53,238103 police officers ResidentsPolice +36 pct.
pts.more white
Bayonne, N.J.Pop. 63,024224 police officers ResidentsPolice +36 pct.
pts.more white
West Orange, N.J.Pop. 46,207118 police officers ResidentsPolice +36 pct.
pts.more white
Dunellen, N.J.Pop. 7,22718 police officers ResidentsPolice +35 pct.
pts.more white
Plainfield, N.J.Pop. 49,808151 police officers ResidentsPolice +33 pct.
pts.more white
Old Bridge, N.J.Pop. 65,375105 police officers ResidentsPolice +32 pct.
pts.more white
Clifton, N.J.Pop. 84,136155 police officers ResidentsPolice +32 pct.
pts.more white
West New York, N.J.Pop. 49,708127 police officers ResidentsPolice +32 pct.
pts.more white
Union City, N.J.Pop. 66,455170 police officers ResidentsPolice +29 pct.
pts.more white
New Rochelle, N.Y.Pop. 77,062183 police officers ResidentsPolice +29 pct.
pts.more white
East Brunswick, N.J.Pop. 47,51293 police officers ResidentsPolice +29 pct.
pts.more white
Long Branch, N.J.Pop. 30,719100 police officers ResidentsPolice +28 pct.
pts.more white
Teaneck, N.J.Pop. 39,776101 police officers ResidentsPolice +27 pct.
pts.more white
Clarkstown Town, N.Y.Pop. 84,187172 police officers ResidentsPolice +27 pct.
pts.more white
Amityville Village, N.Y.Pop. 9,52326 police officers ResidentsPolice +25 pct.
pts.more white
Kenilworth, N.J.Pop. 7,91430 police officers ResidentsPolice +24 pct.
pts.more white
Harrington Park, N.J.Pop. 4,66412 police officers ResidentsPolice +23 pct.
pts.more white
White Plains, N.Y.Pop. 56,853215 police officers ResidentsPolice +23 pct.
pts.more white
Orange, N.J.Pop. 30,134107 police officers ResidentsPolice +23 pct.
pts.more white
Nutley, N.J.Pop. 28,37065 police officers ResidentsPolice +22 pct.
pts.more white
Belmar, N.J.Pop. 5,79421 police officers ResidentsPolice +22 pct.
pts.more white
Bradley Beach, N.J.Pop. 4,29817 police officers ResidentsPolice +22 pct.
pts.more white
New York, N.Y.Pop. 8,175,13335,216 police officers ResidentsPolice +21 pct.
pts.more white
Lynbrook Village, N.Y.Pop. 19,42749 police officers ResidentsPolice +20 pct.
pts.more white
Lincoln Park, N.J.Pop. 10,52126 police officers ResidentsPolice +20 pct.
pts.more white
Harrison Town, N.Y.Pop. 27,47276 police officers ResidentsPolice +19 pct.
pts.more white
Wanaque, N.J.Pop. 11,11623 police officers ResidentsPolice +19 pct.
pts.more white
Old Brookville Village, N.Y.Pop. 2,13440 police officers ResidentsPolice +18 pct.
pts.more white
Florham Park, N.J.Pop. 11,69632 police officers ResidentsPolice +17 pct.
pts.more white
Malverne Village, N.Y.Pop. 8,51424 police officers ResidentsPolice +17 pct.
pts.more white
Stony Point Town, N.Y.Pop. 15,05930 police officers ResidentsPolice +17 pct.
pts.more white
Montclair, N.J.Pop. 37,669111 police officers ResidentsPolice +16 pct.
pts.more white
Newark, N.J.Pop. 277,1401,229 police officers ResidentsPolice +16 pct.
pts.more white
Freehold, N.J.Pop. 36,18468 police officers ResidentsPolice +16 pct.
pts.more white
New Providence, N.J.Pop. 12,17126 police officers ResidentsPolice +15 pct.
pts.more white
Englewood, N.J.Pop. 27,14783 police officers ResidentsPolice +15 pct.
pts.more white
Tinton Falls, N.J.Pop. 17,89240 police officers ResidentsPolice +14 pct.
pts.more white
Mountainside, N.J.Pop. 6,68522 police officers ResidentsPolice +14 pct.
pts.more white
North Haledon, N.J.Pop. 8,41718 police officers ResidentsPolice +14 pct.
pts.more white
Wayne, N.J.Pop. 54,717117 police officers ResidentsPolice +14 pct.
pts.more white
Jackson, N.J.Pop. 54,85686 police officers ResidentsPolice +12 pct.
pts.more white
Bedford Town, N.Y.Pop. 17,33543 police officers ResidentsPolice +12 pct.
pts.more white
Ringwood, N.J.Pop. 12,22823 police officers ResidentsPolice +12 pct.
pts.more white
Barnegat, N.J.Pop. 20,93646 police officers ResidentsPolice +11 pct.
pts.more white
Morris, N.J.Pop. 22,30644 police officers ResidentsPolice +11 pct.
pts.more white
North Castle Town, N.Y.Pop. 11,84139 police officers ResidentsPolice +10 pct.
pts.more white
Sparta, N.J.Pop. 19,72240 police officers ResidentsPolice +10 pct.
pts.more white
East Orange, N.J.Pop. 64,270276 police officers ResidentsPolice +10 pct.
pts.more white
Brick, N.J.Pop. 75,072132 police officers ResidentsPolice +10 pct.
pts.more white
Long Beach, N.Y.Pop. 33,27576 police officers ResidentsPolice +10 pct.
pts.more white
Verona, N.J.Pop. 13,33231 police officers ResidentsPolice +10 pct.
pts.more white
Manalapan, N.J.Pop. 38,87266 police officers ResidentsPolice +10 pct.
pts.more white
Glen Ridge, N.J.Pop. 7,52727 police officers ResidentsPolice +10 pct.
pts.more white
West Long Branch, N.J.Pop. 8,09721 police officers ResidentsPolice +9 pct.
pts.more white
Berkeley, N.J.Pop. 41,25572 police officers ResidentsPolice +9 pct.
pts.more white
Rockaway, N.J.Pop. 24,15658 police officers ResidentsPolice +8 pct.
pts.more white
Princeton, N.J.Pop. 16,26531 police officers ResidentsPolice +6 pct.
pts.more white
Stafford, N.J.Pop. 26,53559 police officers ResidentsPolice +5 pct.
pts.more white
Highlands, N.J.Pop. 5,00514 police officers ResidentsPolice +4 pct.
pts.more white
Byram, N.J.Pop. 8,35015 police officers ResidentsPolice +3 pct.
pts.more white
Quogue Village, N.Y.Pop. 96713 police officers ResidentsPolice -4 pct.
pts.less white
Essex Fells, N.J.Pop. 2,11313 police officers ResidentsPolice -9 pct.
pts.less white

Los Angeles

Cities in Los Angeles County with large Hispanic populations, like West Covina and Pomona, have mostly white police departments. In parts of Orange County, like Buena Park, Tustin and Garden Grove, growing Asian and Hispanic communities are also policed by mostly white departments.

Los Angeles

Circles are scaled according to the size of the police department.

Department WHITEBLACKHISP.ASIANOTHER
Montclair, Calif.Pop. 36,66460 police officers ResidentsPolice Police dept.+69 pct.
pts.more white
than residents
West Covina, Calif.Pop. 106,098127 police officers ResidentsPolice +54 pct.
pts.more white
Pomona, Calif.Pop. 149,058192 police officers ResidentsPolice +54 pct.
pts.more white
Ontario, Calif.Pop. 163,924226 police officers ResidentsPolice +51 pct.
pts.more white
El Monte, Calif.Pop. 113,475152 police officers ResidentsPolice +50 pct.
pts.more white
Buena Park, Calif.Pop. 80,53090 police officers ResidentsPolice +50 pct.
pts.more white
Tustin, Calif.Pop. 75,54095 police officers ResidentsPolice +49 pct.
pts.more white
Garden Grove, Calif.Pop. 170,883159 police officers ResidentsPolice +47 pct.
pts.more white
Westminster, Calif.Pop. 89,70198 police officers ResidentsPolice +46 pct.
pts.more white
Gardena, Calif.Pop. 58,82991 police officers ResidentsPolice +46 pct.
pts.more white
Chino, Calif.Pop. 77,98387 police officers ResidentsPolice +45 pct.
pts.more white
Signal Hill, Calif.Pop. 11,01635 police officers ResidentsPolice +44 pct.
pts.more white
Covina, Calif.Pop. 47,79657 police officers ResidentsPolice +44 pct.
pts.more white
Downey, Calif.Pop. 111,772106 police officers ResidentsPolice +44 pct.
pts.more white
Huntington Park, Calif.Pop. 58,11471 police officers ResidentsPolice +42 pct.
pts.more white
Anaheim, Calif.Pop. 336,265390 police officers ResidentsPolice +42 pct.
pts.more white
Azusa, Calif.Pop. 46,36162 police officers ResidentsPolice +37 pct.
pts.more white
Santa Ana, Calif.Pop. 324,528365 police officers ResidentsPolice +37 pct.
pts.more white
Maywood, Calif.Pop. 27,39537 police officers ResidentsPolice +36 pct.
pts.more white
Fullerton, Calif.Pop. 135,161160 police officers ResidentsPolice +35 pct.
pts.more white
Cypress, Calif.Pop. 47,80256 police officers ResidentsPolice +33 pct.
pts.more white
Torrance, Calif.Pop. 145,438231 police officers ResidentsPolice +31 pct.
pts.more white
Inglewood, Calif.Pop. 109,673187 police officers ResidentsPolice +31 pct.
pts.more white
Whittier, Calif.Pop. 85,331131 police officers ResidentsPolice +29 pct.
pts.more white
Alhambra, Calif.Pop. 83,08985 police officers ResidentsPolice +29 pct.
pts.more white
Costa Mesa, Calif.Pop. 109,960162 police officers ResidentsPolice +28 pct.
pts.more white
Long Beach, Calif.Pop. 462,257972 police officers ResidentsPolice +28 pct.
pts.more white
Orange, Calif.Pop. 136,416163 police officers ResidentsPolice +27 pct.
pts.more white
Claremont, Calif.Pop. 34,92642 police officers ResidentsPolice +22 pct.
pts.more white
Huntington Beach, Calif.Pop. 189,992218 police officers ResidentsPolice +18 pct.
pts.more white
Burbank, Calif.Pop. 103,340159 police officers ResidentsPolice +17 pct.
pts.more white
Glendora, Calif.Pop. 50,07353 police officers ResidentsPolice +13 pct.
pts.more white
Los Angeles, Calif.Pop. 3,792,6219,504 police officers ResidentsPolice +11 pct.
pts.more white
Seal Beach, Calif.Pop. 24,16830 police officers ResidentsPolice +10 pct.
pts.more white
Glendale, Calif.Pop. 191,719254 police officers ResidentsPolice +4 pct.
pts.more white
Pasadena, Calif.Pop. 137,122248 police officers ResidentsPolice +2 pct.
pts.more white
Beverly Hills, Calif.Pop. 34,109134 police officers ResidentsPolice +1 pct.
pts.more white
Santa Monica, Calif.Pop. 89,736214 police officers ResidentsPolice -15 pct.
pts.less white

Chicago

The Chicago Police Department faced several lawsuits from 1970 to 2000 that forced it to hire more minorities. But it is still more than half white, despite the city’s relatively equal numbers of whites, Hispanics and blacks. Towns that had a huge influx of Hispanics in recent decades, like Cicero, have some of the largest racial disparities.

Chicago

Circles are scaled according to the size of the police department.

Department WHITEBLACKHISP.ASIANOTHER
Stone Park, Ill.Pop. 4,94618 police officers ResidentsPolice Police dept.+76 pct.
pts.more white
than residents
Blue Island, Ill.Pop. 23,70640 police officers ResidentsPolice +56 pct.
pts.more white
Berkeley, Ill.Pop. 5,20916 police officers ResidentsPolice +55 pct.
pts.more white
Cicero, Ill.Pop. 83,891141 police officers ResidentsPolice +55 pct.
pts.more white
Waukegan, Ill.Pop. 89,078164 police officers ResidentsPolice +53 pct.
pts.more white
Carpentersville, Ill.Pop. 37,69167 police officers ResidentsPolice +53 pct.
pts.more white
Merrillville, Ind.Pop. 35,24651 police officers ResidentsPolice +52 pct.
pts.more white
Glenwood, Ill.Pop. 8,96923 police officers ResidentsPolice +50 pct.
pts.more white
Bolingbrook, Ill.Pop. 73,366122 police officers ResidentsPolice +45 pct.
pts.more white
Addison, Ill.Pop. 36,94279 police officers ResidentsPolice +42 pct.
pts.more white
Wheeling, Ill.Pop. 37,64864 police officers ResidentsPolice +40 pct.
pts.more white
Hammond, Ind.Pop. 80,830211 police officers ResidentsPolice +35 pct.
pts.more white
Westchester, Ill.Pop. 16,71835 police officers ResidentsPolice +34 pct.
pts.more white
Elgin, Ill.Pop. 108,188189 police officers ResidentsPolice +33 pct.
pts.more white
Rosemont, Ill.Pop. 4,20275 police officers ResidentsPolice +33 pct.
pts.more white
Joliet, Ill.Pop. 147,433302 police officers ResidentsPolice +31 pct.
pts.more white
Schaumburg, Ill.Pop. 74,227131 police officers ResidentsPolice +29 pct.
pts.more white
Hazel Crest, Ill.Pop. 14,10029 police officers ResidentsPolice +29 pct.
pts.more white
Carol Stream, Ill.Pop. 39,71162 police officers ResidentsPolice +29 pct.
pts.more white
Elmwood Park, Ill.Pop. 24,88336 police officers ResidentsPolice +28 pct.
pts.more white
Woodridge, Ill.Pop. 32,97156 police officers ResidentsPolice +28 pct.
pts.more white
Alsip, Ill.Pop. 19,27742 police officers ResidentsPolice +27 pct.
pts.more white
Mount Prospect, Ill.Pop. 54,16794 police officers ResidentsPolice +26 pct.
pts.more white
Skokie, Ill.Pop. 64,784110 police officers ResidentsPolice +25 pct.
pts.more white
Vernon Hills, Ill.Pop. 25,11348 police officers ResidentsPolice +24 pct.
pts.more white
Chicago, Ill.Pop. 2,695,59813,336 police officers ResidentsPolice +23 pct.
pts.more white
Niles, Ill.Pop. 29,80360 police officers ResidentsPolice +22 pct.
pts.more white
Willowbrook, Ill.Pop. 8,54026 police officers ResidentsPolice +21 pct.
pts.more white
Naperville, Ill.Pop. 141,853189 police officers ResidentsPolice +21 pct.
pts.more white
Evergreen Park, Ill.Pop. 19,85256 police officers ResidentsPolice +21 pct.
pts.more white
Palatine, Ill.Pop. 68,557110 police officers ResidentsPolice +20 pct.
pts.more white
Burr Ridge, Ill.Pop. 10,55926 police officers ResidentsPolice +19 pct.
pts.more white
Oak Lawn, Ill.Pop. 56,690104 police officers ResidentsPolice +18 pct.
pts.more white
Crystal Lake, Ill.Pop. 40,74359 police officers ResidentsPolice +13 pct.
pts.more white
East Chicago, Ind.Pop. 29,698113 police officers ResidentsPolice +13 pct.
pts.more white
North Chicago, Ill.Pop. 32,57453 police officers ResidentsPolice +13 pct.
pts.more white
Winfield, Ill.Pop. 9,08020 police officers ResidentsPolice +12 pct.
pts.more white
Elmhurst, Ill.Pop. 44,12167 police officers ResidentsPolice +10 pct.
pts.more white
Lake Bluff, Ill.Pop. 5,72218 police officers ResidentsPolice +9 pct.
pts.more white
Tinley Park, Ill.Pop. 56,70381 police officers ResidentsPolice +9 pct.
pts.more white
Wheaton, Ill.Pop. 52,89472 police officers ResidentsPolice +8 pct.
pts.more white
Northbrook, Ill.Pop. 33,17061 police officers ResidentsPolice +8 pct.
pts.more white
Harwood Heights, Ill.Pop. 8,61227 police officers ResidentsPolice +7 pct.
pts.more white
Arlington Heights, Ill.Pop. 75,101110 police officers ResidentsPolice +6 pct.
pts.more white
Oak Park, Ill.Pop. 51,878121 police officers ResidentsPolice +6 pct.
pts.more white
Lake Forest, Ill.Pop. 19,37541 police officers ResidentsPolice +2 pct.
pts.more white
Evanston, Ill.Pop. 74,486157 police officers ResidentsPolice +1 pct.
pts.more white
Kenilworth, Ill.Pop. 2,51311 police officers ResidentsPolice -5 pct.
pts.less white
East Dundee, Ill.Pop. 2,86014 police officers ResidentsPolice -8 pct.
pts.less white
Palos Park, Ill.Pop. 4,84712 police officers ResidentsPolice -9 pct.
pts.less white

Miami

The racial makeup of police departments in a number of towns, like Coral Gables and Boca Raton, are similar to their communities. But Pembroke Pines, which is about 40 percent Hispanic, is policed by a mostly white department, and Lauderhill, which is three-quarters black, has a department that is more than half white.

Miami

Circles are scaled according to the size of the police department.

Department WHITEBLACKHISP.ASIANOTHER
Miramar, Fla.Pop. 122,041191 police officers ResidentsPolice Police dept.+47 pct.
pts.more white
than residents
Pembroke Pines, Fla.Pop. 154,750243 police officers ResidentsPolice +44 pct.
pts.more white
Lauderhill, Fla.Pop. 66,887115 police officers ResidentsPolice +43 pct.
pts.more white
Miami Springs, Fla.Pop. 13,80941 police officers ResidentsPolice +42 pct.
pts.more white
Sunrise, Fla.Pop. 84,439173 police officers ResidentsPolice +38 pct.
pts.more white
Margate, Fla.Pop. 53,284115 police officers ResidentsPolice +37 pct.
pts.more white
Coral Springs, Fla.Pop. 121,096200 police officers ResidentsPolice +36 pct.
pts.more white
Plantation, Fla.Pop. 84,955180 police officers ResidentsPolice +33 pct.
pts.more white
West Palm Beach, Fla.Pop. 99,919310 police officers ResidentsPolice +33 pct.
pts.more white
Coconut Creek, Fla.Pop. 52,90985 police officers ResidentsPolice +29 pct.
pts.more white
North Miami, Fla.Pop. 58,786126 police officers ResidentsPolice +28 pct.
pts.more white
Boynton Beach, Fla.Pop. 68,217164 police officers ResidentsPolice +24 pct.
pts.more white
Davie, Fla.Pop. 91,992172 police officers ResidentsPolice +24 pct.
pts.more white
North Miami Beach, Fla.Pop. 41,523110 police officers ResidentsPolice +23 pct.
pts.more white
Fort Lauderdale, Fla.Pop. 165,521453 police officers ResidentsPolice +23 pct.
pts.more white
Hollywood, Fla.Pop. 140,768319 police officers ResidentsPolice +21 pct.
pts.more white
Delray Beach, Fla.Pop. 60,522152 police officers ResidentsPolice +16 pct.
pts.more white
Riviera Beach, Fla.Pop. 32,488113 police officers ResidentsPolice +14 pct.
pts.more white
Gulf Stream, Fla.Pop. 78610 police officers ResidentsPolice +6 pct.
pts.more white
Jupiter, Fla.Pop. 55,156107 police officers ResidentsPolice +3 pct.
pts.more white
Miami, Fla.Pop. 399,4571,054 police officers ResidentsPolice +2 pct.
pts.more white
Coral Gables, Fla.Pop. 46,780186 police officers ResidentsPolice +1 pct.
pts.more white
Boca Raton, Fla.Pop. 84,392188 police officers ResidentsPolice +0 pct.
pts.more white
Palm Beach Gardens, Fla.Pop. 48,452112 police officers ResidentsPolice -1 pct.
pts.less white
Miami Beach, Fla.Pop. 87,779385 police officers ResidentsPolice -4 pct.
pts.less white
South Miami, Fla.Pop. 11,65749 police officers ResidentsPolice -7 pct.
pts.less white
Surfside, Fla.Pop. 5,74430 police officers ResidentsPolice -10 pct.
pts.less white

Boston

Chelsea’s police department remains mostly white, even though more than half its population is Hispanic. Progress has been made, though, according to Chief Brian Kyes, who said that minorities now made up 30 percent of the force. Chief Kyes said the department was continuing to reach out to more Hispanics.

Boston

Circles are scaled according to the size of the police department.

Department WHITEBLACKHISP.ASIANOTHER
Chelsea, Mass.Pop. 35,17783 police officers ResidentsPolice Police dept.+53 pct.
pts.more white
than residents
Lawrence, Mass.Pop. 76,377149 police officers ResidentsPolice +52 pct.
pts.more white
Lynn, Mass.Pop. 90,329182 police officers ResidentsPolice +40 pct.
pts.more white
Brockton, Mass.Pop. 93,810190 police officers ResidentsPolice +39 pct.
pts.more white
Malden, Mass.Pop. 59,450103 police officers ResidentsPolice +37 pct.
pts.more white
Quincy, Mass.Pop. 92,271203 police officers ResidentsPolice +32 pct.
pts.more white
Lowell, Mass.Pop. 106,519233 police officers ResidentsPolice +30 pct.
pts.more white
Framingham, Mass.Pop. 68,318120 police officers ResidentsPolice +26 pct.
pts.more white
Waltham, Mass.Pop. 60,632150 police officers ResidentsPolice +24 pct.
pts.more white
Lexington, Mass.Pop. 31,39446 police officers ResidentsPolice +20 pct.
pts.more white
Burlington, Mass.Pop. 24,49862 police officers ResidentsPolice +19 pct.
pts.more white
Boston, Mass.Pop. 617,5942,169 police officers ResidentsPolice +18 pct.
pts.more white
Newton, Mass.Pop. 85,146139 police officers ResidentsPolice +16 pct.
pts.more white
Brookline, Mass.Pop. 58,732125 police officers ResidentsPolice +15 pct.
pts.more white
Taunton, Mass.Pop. 55,874115 police officers ResidentsPolice +15 pct.
pts.more white
Somerville, Mass.Pop. 75,754116 police officers ResidentsPolice +15 pct.
pts.more white
Belmont, Mass.Pop. 24,72947 police officers ResidentsPolice +14 pct.
pts.more white
Chelmsford, Mass.Pop. 33,80253 police officers ResidentsPolice +13 pct.
pts.more white
Norwood, Mass.Pop. 28,60259 police officers ResidentsPolice +12 pct.
pts.more white
Cambridge, Mass.Pop. 105,162268 police officers ResidentsPolice +11 pct.
pts.more white
Watertown, Mass.Pop. 31,91566 police officers ResidentsPolice +11 pct.
pts.more white
Natick, Mass.Pop. 33,00652 police officers ResidentsPolice +11 pct.
pts.more white
Melrose, Mass.Pop. 26,98342 police officers ResidentsPolice +10 pct.
pts.more white
Peabody, Mass.Pop. 51,25193 police officers ResidentsPolice +9 pct.
pts.more white
Billerica, Mass.Pop. 40,24365 police officers ResidentsPolice +9 pct.
pts.more white
Salem, N.H.Pop. 28,77660 police officers ResidentsPolice +8 pct.
pts.more white
Hudson, Mass.Pop. 19,06331 police officers ResidentsPolice +8 pct.
pts.more white
Wellesley, Mass.Pop. 27,98237 police officers ResidentsPolice +7 pct.
pts.more white
Walpole, Mass.Pop. 24,07040 police officers ResidentsPolice +7 pct.
pts.more white
Groton, Mass.Pop. 10,64617 police officers ResidentsPolice +6 pct.
pts.more white
Ipswich, Mass.Pop. 13,17524 police officers ResidentsPolice +5 pct.
pts.more white
Abington, Mass.Pop. 15,98528 police officers ResidentsPolice +5 pct.
pts.more white
Boxford, Mass.Pop. 7,96513 police officers ResidentsPolice +5 pct.
pts.more white
Seabrook, N.H.Pop. 8,69325 police officers ResidentsPolice +5 pct.
pts.more white
Needham, Mass.Pop. 28,88645 police officers ResidentsPolice +4 pct.
pts.more white
Hanson, Mass.Pop. 10,20921 police officers ResidentsPolice +4 pct.
pts.more white
Raynham, Mass.Pop. 13,38326 police officers ResidentsPolice +4 pct.
pts.more white
Rockland, Mass.Pop. 17,48932 police officers ResidentsPolice +0 pct.
pts.more white

Houston

South Houston, about 12 miles southeast of Houston, is nearly 90 percent Hispanic, but its police force is nearly three-quarters white. Houston’s police department, with a 26-point difference, is closer to matching the demographics of its population.

Houston

Circles are scaled according to the size of the police department.

Department WHITEBLACKHISP.ASIANOTHER
South Houston, Tex.Pop. 16,98332 police officers ResidentsPolice Police dept.+62 pct.
pts.more white
than residents
Pasadena, Tex.Pop. 149,043252 police officers ResidentsPolice +52 pct.
pts.more white
Humble, Tex.Pop. 15,13359 police officers ResidentsPolice +50 pct.
pts.more white
Baytown, Tex.Pop. 71,802129 police officers ResidentsPolice +43 pct.
pts.more white
La Porte, Tex.Pop. 33,80074 police officers ResidentsPolice +29 pct.
pts.more white
Houston, Tex.Pop. 2,099,4514,892 police officers ResidentsPolice +27 pct.
pts.more white
Deer Park, Tex.Pop. 32,01055 police officers ResidentsPolice +20 pct.
pts.more white
Nassau Bay, Tex.Pop. 4,00214 police officers ResidentsPolice +10 pct.
pts.more white
Bellaire, Tex.Pop. 16,85542 police officers ResidentsPolice -1 pct.
pts.less white

San Francisco

Minorities make up more than half of suburban San Francisco towns like Daly City, Hayward and Fremont, but their police departments are heavily white. Berkeley has more black officers than white, and the share of white officers in the department is on par with the share of whites in the city.

San Francisco

Circles are scaled according to the size of the police department.

Department WHITEBLACKHISP.ASIANOTHER
Daly City, Calif.Pop. 101,123108 police officers ResidentsPolice Police dept.+52 pct.
pts.more white
than residents
Hayward, Calif.Pop. 144,186191 police officers ResidentsPolice +50 pct.
pts.more white
Fremont, Calif.Pop. 214,089185 police officers ResidentsPolice +48 pct.
pts.more white
San Bruno, Calif.Pop. 41,11448 police officers ResidentsPolice +47 pct.
pts.more white
San Mateo, Calif.Pop. 97,207114 police officers ResidentsPolice +45 pct.
pts.more white
Sunnyvale, Calif.Pop. 140,081207 police officers ResidentsPolice +36 pct.
pts.more white
Santa Clara, Calif.Pop. 116,468137 police officers ResidentsPolice +34 pct.
pts.more white
Redwood City, Calif.Pop. 76,81591 police officers ResidentsPolice +33 pct.
pts.more white
San Jose, Calif.Pop. 945,9421,386 police officers ResidentsPolice +31 pct.
pts.more white
Richmond, Calif.Pop. 103,701161 police officers ResidentsPolice +31 pct.
pts.more white
San Rafael, Calif.Pop. 57,71373 police officers ResidentsPolice +26 pct.
pts.more white
Albany, Calif.Pop. 18,53927 police officers ResidentsPolice +25 pct.
pts.more white
Alameda, Calif.Pop. 73,81299 police officers ResidentsPolice +23 pct.
pts.more white
Oakland, Calif.Pop. 390,724725 police officers ResidentsPolice +18 pct.
pts.more white
El Cerrito, Calif.Pop. 23,54942 police officers ResidentsPolice +18 pct.
pts.more white
San Francisco, Calif.Pop. 805,2352,303 police officers ResidentsPolice +12 pct.
pts.more white
Palo Alto, Calif.Pop. 64,40387 police officers ResidentsPolice +9 pct.
pts.more white
Berkeley, Calif.Pop. 112,580181 police officers ResidentsPolice +1 pct.
pts.more white

Washington

Washington’s police department has more black officers than white. In the suburban city of Greenbelt, Md., however, the proportion of whites on the police force is 53 points more than in the population it covers. Chief Jim Craze said that the competition for minority employees in the Washington area was “fierce,” and that his best recruiting tool had been minority employees spreading the word informally.

Washington

Circles are scaled according to the size of the police department.

Department WHITEBLACKHISP.ASIANOTHER
Riverdale Park, Md.Pop. 6,95617 police officers ResidentsPolice Police dept.+59 pct.
pts.more white
than residents
Greenbelt, Md.Pop. 23,06853 police officers ResidentsPolice +53 pct.
pts.more white
Manassas, Va.Pop. 37,82189 police officers ResidentsPolice +37 pct.
pts.more white
Vienna, Va.Pop. 15,68741 police officers ResidentsPolice +28 pct.
pts.more white
Takoma Park, Md.Pop. 16,71541 police officers ResidentsPolice +25 pct.
pts.more white
Fairfax City, Va.Pop. 22,56562 police officers ResidentsPolice +24 pct.
pts.more white
Warrenton, Va.Pop. 9,61118 police officers ResidentsPolice +20 pct.
pts.more white
Alexandria, Va.Pop. 139,966320 police officers ResidentsPolice +13 pct.
pts.more white
Falls Church, Va.Pop. 12,33233 police officers ResidentsPolice -1 pct.
pts.less white
Washington, D.C.Pop. 601,7233,913 police officers ResidentsPolice -5 pct.
pts.less white

Phoenix

Even in larger cities, some departments, like that of Phoenix, are still heavily white, despite 40 percent of the city being Hispanic.

Phoenix

Circles are scaled according to the size of the police department.

Department WHITEBLACKHISP.ASIANOTHER
Phoenix, Ariz.Pop. 1,445,6323,231 police officers ResidentsPolice Police dept.+35 pct.
pts.more white
than residents
Glendale, Ariz.Pop. 226,721390 police officers ResidentsPolice +29 pct.
pts.more white
Chandler, Ariz.Pop. 236,123325 police officers ResidentsPolice +24 pct.
pts.more white
Mesa, Ariz.Pop. 439,041828 police officers ResidentsPolice +16 pct.
pts.more white
Peoria, Ariz.Pop. 154,065182 police officers ResidentsPolice +12 pct.
pts.more white
Scottsdale, Ariz.Pop. 217,385430 police officers ResidentsPolice +6 pct.
pts.more white

 

Dallas

Despite having large Hispanic and black populations, Dallas’s police department is more than half white. The imbalance is also prevalent in smaller towns across the metro area.

Dallas

Circles are scaled according to the size of the police department.

Department WHITEBLACKHISP.ASIANOTHER
Duncanville, Tex.Pop. 38,52455 police officers ResidentsPolice Police dept.+55 pct.
pts.more white
than residents
Irving, Tex.Pop. 216,290324 police officers ResidentsPolice +53 pct.
pts.more white
Garland, Tex.Pop. 226,876320 police officers ResidentsPolice +49 pct.
pts.more white
Mesquite, Tex.Pop. 139,824222 police officers ResidentsPolice +46 pct.
pts.more white
Cedar Hill, Tex.Pop. 45,02865 police officers ResidentsPolice +45 pct.
pts.more white
Everman, Tex.Pop. 6,10813 police officers ResidentsPolice +43 pct.
pts.more white
Carrollton, Tex.Pop. 119,097161 police officers ResidentsPolice +43 pct.
pts.more white
Haltom City, Tex.Pop. 42,40973 police officers ResidentsPolice +39 pct.
pts.more white
Farmers Branch, Tex.Pop. 28,61668 police officers ResidentsPolice +38 pct.
pts.more white
Euless, Tex.Pop. 51,27785 police officers ResidentsPolice +32 pct.
pts.more white
Dallas, Tex.Pop. 1,197,8163,122 police officers ResidentsPolice +29 pct.
pts.more white
Richardson, Tex.Pop. 99,223144 police officers ResidentsPolice +29 pct.
pts.more white
Plano, Tex.Pop. 259,841342 police officers ResidentsPolice +26 pct.
pts.more white
Rowlett, Tex.Pop. 56,19974 police officers ResidentsPolice +25 pct.
pts.more white
Hurst, Tex.Pop. 37,33772 police officers ResidentsPolice +24 pct.
pts.more white
Arlington, Tex.Pop. 365,438580 police officers ResidentsPolice +24 pct.
pts.more white
Trophy Club, Tex.Pop. 8,02413 police officers ResidentsPolice +13 pct.
pts.more white
Lake Worth, Tex.Pop. 4,58423 police officers ResidentsPolice +9 pct.
pts.more white
North Richland Hills, Tex.Pop. 63,343109 police officers ResidentsPolice +8 pct.
pts.more white
Southlake, Tex.Pop. 26,57547 police officers ResidentsPolice +3 pct.
pts.more white
Highland Park, Tex.Pop. 8,56455 police officers ResidentsPolice -6 pct.
pts.less white

Atlanta

Of the largest police departments in the 2007 survey, Atlanta has one of the smallest racial disparities between its police department and its community.

Atlanta

Circles are scaled according to the size of the police department.

Department WHITEBLACKHISP.ASIANOTHER
Douglasville, Ga.Pop. 30,96185 police officers ResidentsPolice Police dept.+57 pct.
pts.more white
than residents
Powder Springs, Ga.Pop. 13,94032 police officers ResidentsPolice +53 pct.
pts.more white
Marietta, Ga.Pop. 56,579132 police officers ResidentsPolice +51 pct.
pts.more white
Covington, Ga.Pop. 13,11851 police officers ResidentsPolice +35 pct.
pts.more white
Fayetteville, Ga.Pop. 15,94544 police officers ResidentsPolice +34 pct.
pts.more white
East Point, Ga.Pop. 33,712124 police officers ResidentsPolice +30 pct.
pts.more white
Roswell, Ga.Pop. 88,346129 police officers ResidentsPolice +20 pct.
pts.more white
Atlanta, Ga.Pop. 420,0031,701 police officers ResidentsPolice +4 pct.
pts.more white

Seattle

Seattle

Circles are scaled according to the size of the police department.

Department WHITEBLACKHISP.ASIANOTHER
Kent, Wash.Pop. 92,411128 police officers ResidentsPolice Police dept.+39 pct.
pts.more white
than residents
Lakewood, Wash.Pop. 58,163103 police officers ResidentsPolice +33 pct.
pts.more white
Federal Way, Wash.Pop. 89,306131 police officers ResidentsPolice +33 pct.
pts.more white
Redmond, Wash.Pop. 54,14473 police officers ResidentsPolice +27 pct.
pts.more white
Mountlake Terrace, Wash.Pop. 19,90931 police officers ResidentsPolice +26 pct.
pts.more white
Bellevue, Wash.Pop. 122,363170 police officers ResidentsPolice +26 pct.
pts.more white
Tacoma, Wash.Pop. 198,397374 police officers ResidentsPolice +24 pct.
pts.more white
Everett, Wash.Pop. 103,019173 police officers ResidentsPolice +20 pct.
pts.more white
Edmonds, Wash.Pop. 39,70955 police officers ResidentsPolice +10 pct.
pts.more white
Seattle, Wash.Pop. 608,6601,277 police officers ResidentsPolice +9 pct.
pts.more white
Bothell, Wash.Pop. 33,50558 police officers ResidentsPolice -1 pct.
pts.less white

Denver

Denver

Circles are scaled according to the size of the police department.

Department WHITEBLACKHISP.ASIANOTHER
Aurora, Colo.Pop. 325,078628 police officers ResidentsPolice Police dept.+39 pct.
pts.more white
than residents
Thornton, Colo.Pop. 118,772148 police officers ResidentsPolice +30 pct.
pts.more white
Lakewood, Colo.Pop. 142,980300 police officers ResidentsPolice +17 pct.
pts.more white
Westminster, Colo.Pop. 106,114179 police officers ResidentsPolice +16 pct.
pts.more white
Denver, Colo.Pop. 600,1581,523 police officers ResidentsPolice +16 pct.
pts.more white
Arvada, Colo.Pop. 106,433149 police officers ResidentsPolice +11 pct.
pts.more white
Littleton, Colo.Pop. 41,73767 police officers ResidentsPolice +9 pct.
pts.more white
Cherry Hills Village, Colo.Pop. 5,98721 police officers ResidentsPolice +8 pct.
pts.more white

Kansas City

Kansas City

Circles are scaled according to the size of the police department.

Department WHITEBLACKHISP.ASIANOTHER
Kansas City, Kan.Pop. 145,786375 police officers ResidentsPolice Police dept.+36 pct.
pts.more white
than residents
Kansas City, Mo.Pop. 459,7871,393 police officers ResidentsPolice +29 pct.
pts.more white
Riverside, Mo.Pop. 2,93728 police officers ResidentsPolice +26 pct.
pts.more white
Olathe, Kan.Pop. 125,872164 police officers ResidentsPolice +17 pct.
pts.more white
Lenexa, Kan.Pop. 48,19087 police officers ResidentsPolice +14 pct.
pts.more white
Gladstone, Mo.Pop. 25,41040 police officers ResidentsPolice +13 pct.
pts.more white
Independence, Mo.Pop. 116,830204 police officers ResidentsPolice +13 pct.
pts.more white
Overland Park, Kan.Pop. 173,372250 police officers ResidentsPolice +10 pct.
pts.more white
Sugar Creek, Mo.Pop. 3,34516 police officers ResidentsPolice +7 pct.
pts.more white
Roeland Park, Kan.Pop. 6,73115 police officers ResidentsPolice -2 pct.
pts.less white

Notes: The Bureau of Justice Statistics surveyed almost all police departments with 100 or more sworn officers and a representative sample of smaller departments. The data above includes municipal police departments. It does not include county or state departments or sheriff’s offices or agencies serving special jurisdictions like schools, airports or parks. Charts showing the proportions of different racial and ethnic groups within the departments are for officers for which data were available. Some departments had a number of officers whose race and ethnicity were unknown. Departments where the percentage whose race or ethnicity was unknown was greater than 10 percent, as well as departments with fewer than 10 officers, were excluded from the lists above. On the maps, circles are placed near the location of the department; some have been offset slightly if they are obscured by circles representing other departments. The New York Times contacted 115 police departments to see how the racial makeup of departments has changed since the 2007 survey. Of the 27 departments that responded, the racial makeup has remained about the same in 20 of them. In six departments, more minorities were hired; in one department, more white officers were hired. The Dellwood, Mo. Police Department was dissolved in 2012. Police services are now provided by the St. Louis County Police Department.

Sources: 2007 Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics, Bureau of Justice Statistics; Brian Reaves, Bureau of Justice Statistics; local police departments; Andrew A. Beveridge, socialexplorer.com; David Alan Sklansky, Stanford Law School; Justin McCrary, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law; Ron Weitzer, George Washington University; Dennis Parker, American Civil Liberties Union

Contributors: Gregor Aisch, Matthew Bloch, Sarah Cohen, Tim Wallace and Jeremy White.